Special education is the process of making educational provision to meet special needs of children which cannot be satisfied by the present arrangements available in ordinary schools
Provides for the unique needs of each child
Provides for individual attention to each child
Develops basic living skills for personal independence
Provides a variety of experiences to the child according to age and functional level
Provides a structured learning programme for the child in accord with his deficit skills
Enables the child to gain social, emotional, and intellectual development
Conducted for the child by especially trained teachers certified in special education
Arranges for professionals to assist the child if needed
Identifies problems of children and suggest ways and means to manage them
Helps and guides parents
"Specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
Learning disability refers to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason and organize information. Learning disability is not included in the PWD Act, 1995. It is a commonly found problem in school children.
The specific types of learning disabilities are:
Dyslexia is a reading-based learning disability, which results in children having difficulty with word recognition and decoding print. They may have difficulty identifying and comprehending words from a book or with spelling.
Dysgraphia is a writing disability, which means a child may not have the complex set of motor and information processing skills to be able to write his or her own thoughts down on a piece of paper. They struggle with writing complete and grammatically correct sentences, and often have poor handwriting.
Dyscalculia refers to a wide range of lifelong learning disabilities involving math. There is no single type of math disability. Dyscalculia can vary from person to person. And, it can affect people differently at different stages of life. Dyscalculia is a math-based learning disability, which results in your child having trouble recognizing numbers and symbols and understanding basic math concepts. For older students, they often have issues related to reasoning.
Dysphasia (or, as this learning disorder is also commonly referred to, aphasia) is a learning disorder marked by impaired ability to speak and to comprehend speech. Some dysphasic students have trouble naming certain objects, while others have a complete lack of speech. Testing for dysphasia often involves evaluating a student’s ability to speak with some level of fluency, to comprehend spoken words, to repeat words that have been spoken, and to name selected objects. Children who suffer from language-based disorders such as aphasia, dysphasia or global aphasia have a hard time expressing themselves using words as well as understanding spoken or written language.
Dysnomia is a learning disability where the affected person cannot remember words correctly. Dysnomia symptoms are not clear-cut as they overlap with those of other common learning and development disorders. Dysnomia is a word finding problem. People with Dysnomia often have an auditory memory problem. They are than not able to remember what they hear. Some have a problem with remembering what they see or experience.
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), also called dyspraxia, is a neuro-developmental condition which means it is part of the make-up of the brain. It is characterized by specific difficulties with coordination, motor planning and motor control which can affect any or all movements, including those required for speech (verbal dyspraxia). Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects motor skill development. People with dyspraxia have trouble planning and completing fine motor tasks.